Titta Novianti, Vetnizah Juniantito, Ahmad Aulia Jusuf, Evy Ayu Arida, Mohamad Sadikin, Sri Widia A. Jusman


The oxygen need is very important in tissue regeneration process for the sustainability of metabolic process. The high activity of cells and tissues during regeneration requires high energy therefore oxygen demand is very high. Cytoglobin (Cygb) is a protein that plays a role to diffuse oxygen to mitochondria. Cygb is a molecule that has a high affinity to oxygen and expressed during hypoxic conditions, when the tissue lacks oxygen. The tissue in regeneration process experiences at hypoxia state, Cygb protein expression have an important role during the tissue regeneration process. The Spearman correlation test results the strong correlation between the expression of Cygb protein of immunoratio test in immunohistochemical staining with the growth of epidermal thickness of tissue (r = 0.67; p <0.05). The results of correlation test between Cygb protein expression with the growth of dermis thickness showed moderate correlation properties (r = 0.406; p <0.05).

Full Text:



Alibardi L. Morphological and Cellular Aspects of Tail and Limb Regeneration in Lizards. New York: Springer; 2010.

Avivi A, Gerlach F, Joel A, Reuss S, Burmester T, Nevo E, Neuroglobin, cytoglobin, and myoglobin contribute to hypoxia adaptation of the subterranean mole rat Spalax. PNAS. 2010; 107 (50): 21570—5

Corpechot C, Barbu V, Wendum D, et al. Hypoxiainduced VEGF and collagen I expressions are associated with angiogenesis and fibrogenesis in experimental cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2002;35(5):1010-1021.

Fausto N, Campbell JS, Riehle KJ. Liver regeneration. Hepatology. 2006;43(2 SUPPL. 1):45-53. doi:10.1053/jhep.2002.32524

Fisher RE, Geiger LA, Stroik LK, et al. A Histological Comparison of the Original and Regenerated Tail in the Green Anole, Anolis carolinensis. Anat Rec Adv Integr Anat Evol Biol. 2012;295(10):1609-1619. doi:10.1002/ar.22537.

Guedelhoefer OC, Alvarado AS. Amputation induces stem cell mobilization to sites of injury during planarian regeneration. Development. 2012;139(19):3510-3520. doi:10.1242/dev.082099.

Hutchins ED, Markov GJ, Eckalbar WL, et al. Transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveals activation of conserved vertebrate developmental and repair mechanisms. PLoS One. 2014;9(8). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105004

Ifeanyichukwu P. Neural Tissue And Complete Regeneration Of The Tail Of The Gekkonid Lizard , Hemidactylus flaviviridis. Anim Res Int. 2006;3:415-418.

Krafts KP. The hidden drama Tissue repair. Organogenesis. 2010;6(4):225–33.

Lechauve C, Chauvierre C, Dewilde S, Moens L, Green BN, Marden MC, et al. Cytoglobin conformations and disulfide bond formation. FEBS J. 2010;277(12):2696–704

Liu X, Tong J, Zweier JR, et al. Differences in oxygen-dependent nitric oxide metabolism by cytoglobin and myoglobin account for their differing functional roles. FEBS J. 2013;280(15):3621-3631. doi:10.1111/febs.12352.

Lozito TP, Tuan RS. Lizard tail regeneration: Regulation of two distinct cartilage regions by Indian hedgehog. Dev Biol. 2015;399(2):249262. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2014.12.036

Mason C, Dunnill P. A brief definition of regenerative medicine. Regen Med. 2008;3(1):15. Mescher AL. Histologi Dasar queiraJun. 12th ed. (Hartanto H, ed.). Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kedokteran; 2011.

Mescher AL. Macrophages and fibroblasts during inflammation and tissue repair in models of organ regeneration. 2017;(March):39–53.

Nakatani Y, Kawakami A, Kudo A. Cellular and mollecullar processes of regeneration with special emphasis on fish fins. Dev growth Differ. 2007; 49: 145-54.

Oleksiewicz U, Liloglou T, Tasopoulou KM, et al. Cytoglobin has bimodal: Tumour suppressor and oncogene functions in lung cancer cell lines. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22(16):3207-3217

Osuma EA, Riggs DW, Gibb AA, Hill BG. High throughput measurement of metabolisme in planarians reveals activation of glycolysis during regeneration. Regeneration. 2018;(August):1–9.

Pirkmajer S, Filipovic D, Mars T, Mis K, Grubic Z. HIF-1alpha response to hypoxia is functionally separated from the glucocorticoid stress response in the in vitro regenerating human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299(42):R1693-R1700. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00133.2010.

Ramadhani D, Kurnia I, Soetopo S, Tetriana D, Ramli I, Budiningsih, Andrijono, Kurjana T, Tobing MDL. Analisis Serta Stitching Citra Imunohistokimia Mib-1 Dengan Immunoratio dan perangkat lunak Nish Element. Lokakrya komputansi dala sains dan Teknologi Nuklir. 2012;(October): 187-97.

Reinke JM, Sorg H. Wound repair and regeneration. Eur Surg Res. 2012;49(1):35–43.

Sha S. Functional Characterization of cytoglobin. Thesis, University of Hongkong 2011.

Scheerer N, Dehne N, Stockmann C, et al. Myeloid Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 Is Essential for Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in Mice. J Immunol. 2013;191(1):407-414. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1103779.

Schmidt M, Gerlach F, Avivi A, et al. Cytoglobin Is a Respiratory Protein in Connective Tissue and Neurons, Which Is Up-regulated by Hypoxia. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(9):8063-8069. doi:10.1074/jbc.M310540200.

Tahrin Mahmood P-CY. Western Blot: Technique, Theory, and Trouble Shooting. NAm J Med Sci. 2012;4(9):429–34.

Theise ND, Bushell W. From the Global to The Local: Pathways For The Transduction of IndoSino-Tibetan Cognitive-Behavioral Practices into Site Specific Tissue Regenerative Effects. New York; 2007.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology and Biodiversity

ISSN 2581-0014

published by:

Lembaga Penerbitan Universitas Esa Unggul

Jalan Arjuna Utara No. 9, Kebon Jeruk, Jakarta Barat